Konrad Szymański was born on 6 December 1969 in Kalisz. In 1995, he graduated from the Faculty of Law at the Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań.
Between 1993 and 1997, he was an expert for the Committee on Local Government of the Poznań City Council, and since 1997, he has been an adviser to Marcin Libicki, chairman of the Polish delegation to the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe. Between 1997 and 1998, he was an employee of the Chancellery of the Sejm, and from 1999 to 2000 — an advisor to the Deputy Marshal of the Sejm. Between 1999 and 2000, he was a member of the political cabinet of Minister Kazimierz Marcinkiewicz (head of the political cabinet of Prime Minister Jerzy Buzek) in the Chancellery of the Prime Minister. From 2000 to 2002 he was a program director at TV Puls, and from 2002 to 2009 he was the editor-in-chief of the bimonthly "Międzynarodowy Przegląd Polityczny" (International Political Review).
Between 2004 and 2014, Konrad Szymański was a Member of the European Parliament on behalf of Law and Justice. He sat on the Committee on Foreign Affairs (AFET) and the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy (ITRE), where he dealt with Eastern affairs and the EU's relations with the Eastern Partnership countries as well as the EU's energy security. In 2013 and 2014, "Polityka" and "Rzeczpospolita", respectively, voted him one of the best Polish members of the European Parliament.
From 17 November 2015 to 14 November 2019, was Secretary of State at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
On 15 November 2019, he was appointed as Minister – a member of the Council of Ministers.