Dariusz Piontkowski was born on 17 December 1964 in Sielc (Podlaskie Voivodeship).
In 1988, he graduated in history from the Faculty of Humanities of the Białystok branch of the University of Warsaw. He also graduated from postgraduate managerial studies at the University of Finance and Management in Białystok, from human resources management in public administration at the College of Public Administration in Białystok (2001) as well as from education management at the University of Białystok.
He was a teacher at the 1st Adam Mickiewicz High School in Białystok. In 1994–2007, he was a member of the Białystok City Council. In 2007, he was elected a councillor in the Regional Assembly of Podlaskie Voivodeship. Later, he became the Marshal of Podlaskie Voivodeship. In 2010, he again became the voivodeship councillor.
He was a deputy to the Sejm of the 7th and 8th terms. On 16 November 2015, he became the Deputy Chairman of the Education, Science and Youth Committee at the Sejm. On 4 June 2019, he was appointed by the President of the Republic of Poland as the Minister of National Education.
He is married with two sons. In his spare time, he enjoys active leisure, especially volleyball, cycling and sailing.